The Fourth of July is the birthday of our nation. Its the day we declared independence from foreign rule. Yet it was with foreign help that we won our freedom.
And even though historians will say horses played a minor role in the Revolutionary war, others will say, without the horse, our heroes would have lost the war and been hanged as traitors.
One thing is for sure, the War of Independence brought us our freedom, and it also brought us the American Cavalry.
The horse soldier came into his own.
Nearly a decade before the Boston Tea Party, events were taking place in Poland which would later have a profound effect on the American War of Independence.
Cassimir Pulaski was in the service of the Duke of Courland in 1768 learning the techniques of riding and cavalry warfare. Meanwhile Cassimirs father, Joseph Pulaski was bringing men to arms in an effort to keep the Russians from interfering in Polish affairs. The political climate was similar to what was brewing in the American colonies.
Cassimirs father died in 1769, and even though Cassimir was only 22, the burden of commanding troops fell to him. While he was successful in a number of small battles, his greatest victory came in capturing from the Russians and holding Jasna Gora at Czestochowa, the holiest place in Poland. He became an instant hero, but his position was short-lived as he was implicated in a plot of kill the King of Poland and he was forced into exile.
Pulaski fled to France where he met Benjamin Franklin who was in Paris seeking the help of the French for the American cause. Pulaski saw the colonials as fighting for the same ideals as his and he soon agreed to join George Washingtons army, saying, "For your freedom and ours."
Pulaski was placed in temporary command of Washingtons somewhat ragtag cavalry detachment. On September 11, 1777 at the Battle of Brandywine, in Pennsylvania, Pulaski was sent out scout British troop movements. Pulaski quickly discovered the British were beginning a flanking movement, so he gathered all the available horsemen and led a surprise charge which allowed the American army to escape British entrapment. In saving the rebels, he actually is also credited with saving Washington's life.
Congress rewarded Pulaski on Sept. 15, 1777 with a commission as Brigadier General of the American Cavalry which at the time was next to nothing. He spent the winter or 1777 and all of 1778 training, outfitting and building cavalry units. He requested and Washington approved the formation of an independent cavalry and light infantry made up of foreign volunteers. This unit became the training round for all American cavalry officers, including "Light Horse" Harry Lee, the father of Robert E. Lee.
Pulaskis Legion, as it later became known, was involved in many minor skirmishes through 1778 and early 1779 with the British along the Delaware River. Then he was ordered to join Gen. Lincoln, who was in command of forces in Georgia and South Carolina. Pulaski reached Charleston, SC on May 11, 1779, the day the city was besieged by the British. Pulaski ordered his arm to attack and they pushed the British back, forcing a retreat and saving the city.
The next military action was to engage the enemy at Savannah, GA. On Oct. 9, 1779 Pulaskis Legion mounted an assault, but suffered heavy casualties from British musket and cannon fire. During the charge, Pulaski was mortally wounded. The attach failed.
Pulaski died on board the American ship WASP two days later. He was buried at sea.
On Nov. 11, 1779 Gen. Washington order all army units to use the password "Pulaski" and the response "Poland" in honor of the fallen hero.
His heroics are legend. But it is his less know work of forging disciplined riders who could shadow and report on British troop movements, go on long distance forage raids to feed and clothe the men at Valley Forge and hit and run to slow the British troops which earned him the title, "Father of the American Cavalry."
In 1825, General Lafayette laid a cornerstone for the Pulaski Monument in Savannah. The monument was completed and dedicated in 1853.
Today every state in our nation has a county, city, town, street, highway, bridge or other landmark named in honor of Pulaski.
The horse certainly did have an impact on the War of Independence.